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This monarch dissolved all the monasteries in his realm as part of a split from the Catholic church in Rome. The Army Regulation Bill abolished the practice of purchasing commissions in the armed forces. The railways responded by purchasing about a fourth of the dynabook 1870 english system, in part to get the right of way, and in part to buy off critics. Dynabook 1870 english a charter was obtained, there was little government regulation, as laissez-faire and private ownership had become accepted practices.

The different lines typically had exclusive territory, but given the compact size of Britain, this meant that multiple competing lines could provide service between major cities. George Hudson dynabook 1870 english became the "railway king" of Britain.

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He merged various independent lines and set up a "Clearing House" in which rationalized interconnections by establishing uniform paperwork and standard methods for transferring passengers and freight between lines, and rates when one system used freight cars owned by another. Byrates had fallen to a penny a ton mile for coal, at speeds of up to fifty miles an hour. Britain now had had the model for the world in a well integrated, well-engineered system that dynabook 1870 english fast, cheap movement of freight and people, and which could be replicated in other major nations.

The railways directly or indirectly employed tens of thousands of engineers, mechanics, repairmen and technicians, as well as statisticians and financial planners.

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They developed new and more efficient and less expensive techniques. Most important, they created a mindset of how technology could be used in many different forms of dynabook 1870 english. Railways had a major impact on industrialization.

By lowering transportation costs, they reduced costs for all industries moving supplies and finished goods, and they increased demand for the production of all the inputs needed for the railroad system itself. Bythere were 13, locomotives which each carried 97, passengers a year, or 31, tons of freight. India provides dynabook 1870 english example of the London-based financiers pouring money and expertise into a very well built system designed for military reasons after the Mutiny ofand with the hope that it would stimulate industry. The system was overbuilt and much too elaborate and expensive for the small amount of freight traffic it carried. However, it did dynabook 1870 english the imagination of the Indians, who saw their railways as the symbol of an industrial modernity—but one that was not realized until a century or so later.


Medicine progressed during Queen Victoria's reign. Although nitrous oxideor laughing gas, had been proposed as an anaesthetic as far back as by Humphry Davyit wasn't until when an American dentist named William Morton started using ether on his patients that anaesthetics became common in the medical profession. Anaesthetics made painless dentistry possible. At the same time sugar consumption in dynabook 1870 english British diet increased, greatly increasing instances of tooth decay. This gave rise to "Waterloo Teeth", which were real human teeth set into hand-carved pieces of ivory from hippopotamus or walrus jaws. Medicine also benefited from the introduction of antiseptics by Joseph Lister in in the form of carbolic acid phenol.

The Victorian era was a time of unprecedented population growth dynabook 1870 english Britain. Dynabook 1870 english population rose from Two major contributary factors were fertility rates and mortality rates. Britain was the first country to undergo the demographic transition and the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. Britain had the lead in rapid economic and population growth.


At the time, Thomas Malthus believed this lack of growth outside Britain was due to the ' Malthusian trap '. That is, the tendency of a population to expand geometrically while resources grew more slowly, reaching a crisis such as famine, war, or epidemic which would reduce the population dynabook 1870 english a sustainable size. Britain escaped the 'Malthusian trap' because the Industrial Revolution had a positive impact on living standards. In the Victorian era, fertility rates increased in every decade untilwhen the rates started evening out. One is biological: with improving living standards, a higher proportion of women were biologically able to have children.

Another possible explanation is social. In the 19th century, the marriage rate increased, and people were getting married at a very young age until the end of the century, when the average age of marriage started to increase again slowly. The reasons why people got married younger and more frequently are uncertain. One theory is that greater prosperity allowed people to finance marriage and new households earlier than previously possible. With more births within marriage, it seems inevitable that marriage rates and birth rates would rise together.

This is indeed a crude measure, as key groups and their fertility rates are not clear. It is likely to be affected mainly by changes in the age distribution of the population.

The Net Reproduction Rate was then introduced as an alternative measure: it measures the average fertility rate of women dynabook 1870 english child-bearing ages. High rates of birth also occurred because of a lack of birth control.

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Mainly because women lacked knowledge of birth control methods and the practice was seen as unrespectable. The mortality rates in England changed greatly through the 19th century.DYNABOOK ENGLISH DRIVER - Gladstone was liberal, humanitarian, and devout. The Great Exhibition Next: Dynabook 1870 english cities were 'organized' into. DYNABOOK ENGLISH DRIVER - She built a fabulous new house at Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire.


Gladstone was liberal, humanitarian, and devout.

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